Osteoporosis is a state in which bone is fully mineralized but the bone is abnormally porous and the strength of the bone is less than normal for a person of that age and sex. In this disease, the bone mass reduces due to defect in the formation of osteoid and there is abnormal reduction of bone mass.
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It can be of following types:-
- Due to age related changes, this is called as PRIMARY OR SENILE OSTEOPOROSIS. Sedentary habits of old age with diminished muscular stress and fats in diet leads to demineralization of the bone.
- Due to some indirect causes like endocrine, drugs (corticosteroids, alcohol), malignancy causes bone gets weaken. This is called as SECONDARY OSTEOPOROSIS.
- In the females, menopausal endocrine changes also cause a severe generalized osteoporosis. This is called as INVOLUTIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS.
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- Commonly patient complaint of diffuse back pain over the whole lumbar spine.
- Tenderness is also diffuse or it may be localized if there is a compression fracture.
- Gradually, there is a development of kyphosis in the thoracic spine.
- There may be presence of fracture of neck of femur. (commonly present in old age)
- Although there is weakening of bone but the serum calcium and phosphate levels would be normal.
- In secondary osteoporosis, patient present with primary problem. For e.g. in case of steroid therapy, moon face patient.
Prevention of osteoporosis should begin prior to bone loss. Care should be taken to minimize the trauma. Regular exercises should be done. Women should be treated with estrogen therapy, preferably at the beginning of menopause to prevent the development of osteoporosis.
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|Conservative Treatment||Modern Medicine|
In severe cases, where is excessive loss of movement, surgery is recommended. Surgery improves the movement and overall function of the joint.
|Lifestyle changes and Diet||Modern Medicine|
The ultimate goal of treatment of osteoporosis is prevention of bone fracture through increase in bone density and strength. It includes:
Pain relieving modalities like short wave diathermy, interferential therapy can reduce the pain. Exercises do not increase the bone density but it decreases the risk of falls by increase in muscle strength and by improving the balance.
Analgesics to relieve pain can be given. Bisphosphonates can also be given; it reduces the risk of fracture. Hormone replacement therapy to post menopausal women in the beginning of post menopause period can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
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